Bealtaine 1660

An banmharcas Ormonde [Urumhan] – ag scríobh di i dTeach Dhún Mór, is dócha – chuig a cara Anne Hume

 

you are to desier hime to bee as sparinge as possiblie hee Cane in grantinge of Suites offises or imployments to anye perticuler Persons at the first, untell hee bee fullie and Rightlie possest how farr thay have Sarvede, or is Capabell to Sarve the Intrest now Established; or to M E or such of his relations w untell my Comminge over for it is apprehended that hee willbee very Cravinge
To acquant hime that such as recommendations as comes from mee, in the behalfe of Persons done rathar out of Complianse then respect, shallbee subcribed with the the Leavinge out of the Leter E, at the Ende of the word ormonde

To desier hime that in Cayse anye overtures bee made by EC for Machinge his Sone to B that hee doe not Entertane it but put it ofe Sivelie without disoblidginge the Parents of the Gentellman, with whom in all othar kinds I desier hee may presarve a faire Corespondansie and show a respect unto My Lady of R upon the accompt of hir kindnes to Mee,

To Let hime know that it has bine with great unwillingnes the many leters of recomendation that that [sic] has I have sent hime though thay couldnot bee well denyede nor Cane yet as affares dous Stand Soe as you are to make my Excuse for it

you are to acquant hime that I doe Conseve and Soe dous othar his frinds more Judginge then my Selfe that hee shouldbee generalie plausibell to all and admitt of the applicati[ons] of such as has relatione unto this Contrye yet Soe, as to kiepe himeselfe as free from promisses and ingadgments unto Perticular Persons, as may bee, untell hee doe reseve an impartiall accompt of Evrye ons Carrage and Intrest wherby the kinge and himselfe may the beter know how to Plase favours and rewards where thay are most desarvedlie dew which I shall make it my bussenes to procure; by the healpe of some Frin whous that knows beter then I doe, and by my owne perticuler observatione

To tell hime that Sir Paule Davise is honnest, and willbee tractabell to what hee will have hime doe, that I thinke Sir James Bary willbee Soe Likwise; and that great uss may bee made of Corronell Hill Sir John Clatworthye and the rest of that Gange whoe must bee all of them kindlie resevede by hime

To desier hime to resarve some imployment for Corronell Flower and Major Harmon and some othar of the Honnestest of his Frinds heare

To desier him to Lay his Command upon John Sayres to gett mee a good Cooke

To desier hime to write unto his Mothar and to such othar of his relations as hee thinks Fitt, and in perticular unto the olde Doctor as a Most affectionat and fathfull Person to hime and all his

If you Cannot be Sudanlie at London I pray send a way My leter unto My Lady of Ranalagh by the Post

To desier My Lord to order the way of his Eldest Sones Liveinge by himselfe, by reson I am alltogethar unprovided Ethar of house or furniture, fitt for ther resseptione, Nethar will I adventure upon it on anye Termes that thay should Live with mee fearinge thay might not Like of it, which my Experianse in the world has made me made givene mee more resone to feare then Expect the Contrarye though I am a bundantlie Satisfiede of the Ladys worth and discretione soe am I noe Les of his good Nature and obedianse, yet the troubell of haveinge a Nothar Familie in My House is; from Comminge from a retyrede life a troubill I cannot undertake but willbee willinge to healpe and assist them by my advise wherin it shallbee Sought and bee as kind to hir as to hime, shee beinge a Person Not like to desarve othar from mee

To desier my Lord to make a returne of kindnes unto My Lord of Broghall in what applicatione hee shall make to him

To desier hime to Stope the disposall of the Prothonotars offiss in the Court of Common Plees in Ireland and to Preferr mr wallter Plonket to it whoe had the Promise of it formarlie from hime, and has bine very desarvinge his regard by the Frindshipe hee has exprest for his Sake unto mee and all his relations heare

To desier hime to Countenanse and favour Sir Franses Hambellton as a Fathfull sarvant to the kinge and soe has bine his Sone allsoe

To desier hime to lay his commands upon John Sayres the kings Cooke to provide a good one for mee

An banmharcas Ormonde [Urumhan] – ag scríobh di i dTeach Dhún Mór, is dócha – chuig a cara Anne Hume
Leabharlanna Bodleian, Ollscoil Oxford (Bodl., Páipéir Carte, 214, fóilió 221–22)
An banmharcas Ormonde [Urumhan] – ag scríobh di i dTeach Dhún Mór, is dócha – chuig a cara Anne Hume
Leabharlanna Bodleian, Ollscoil Oxford (Bodl., Páipéir Carte, 214, fóilió 221–22)
An banmharcas Ormonde [Urumhan] – ag scríobh di i dTeach Dhún Mór, is dócha – chuig a cara Anne Hume
Leabharlanna Bodleian, Ollscoil Oxford (Bodl., Páipéir Carte, 214, fóilió 221–22)
An banmharcas Ormonde [Urumhan] – ag scríobh di i dTeach Dhún Mór, is dócha – chuig a cara Anne Hume
Leabharlanna Bodleian, Ollscoil Oxford (Bodl., Páipéir Carte, 214, fóilió 221–22)

Elizabeth was the 5th child and eldest daughter of Elizabeth, duchess of Ormonde. She married Philip Stanhope, 2nd earl of Chesterfield, as his second wife, sometime before 25 September 1660. According to Samuel Pepys, theirs was a marriage of convenience. They had one daughter Lady Elizabeth Stanhope , the ancestor of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, queen consort of George VI of the United Kingdom.

Portrait of Elizabeth Butler, countess of Chesterfield (1640-1665) by Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680).

by kind permission of the Board of Trustees of the Chevening Estate.

According to Samuel Peppy, Philip Stanhope was a ladies’ man, he was one of the lovers of the notorious Barbara Villiers, mistress of king Charles II. Court gossip claimed that his wife, Elizabeth, tired of his neglect, began flirting with the king’s brother, the duke of York.

Portrait of Philip Stanhope, earl of Chesterfield (1634-1714),  by Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680).

Private collection © Sotheby’s

Sa mheamram seo, léirítear an tábhacht leanúnach a bhaineann le gníomhairí baineanna i ngníomhaíochtaí sóisialta agus polaitiúla an bhanmharchais i seachtainí tosaigh na hAthghairme.

 

Ar cheann de shraith litreacha molta a chuir an banmharcas chuig a fear céile i mBealtaine 1660, tá liosta ‘cuimhniúchán’ a raibh sé beartaithe dóibh a bheith léite amach ó bhéal dó, seachas go ndéanfadh sé féin iad a léamh amach, ag teachtaire iontaofa acu. Leis na ceithre threoir déag ar leith, léirítear raon fairsing de naoi n-ábhar imní ‘poiblí’ agus cúig ábhar imní ‘príobháideacha’. Ar shamplaí de na hábhair imní ‘príobháideacha’ luaite ann, bhain ceann amháin díobh leis an idirbheartaíocht maidir le pósadh a hiníne is sine, mar shampla, agus le meabhrú a thug sí dá fear céile gur cheart dó scríobh chuig a mháthair; le hiarracht chun teach a fháil dá mac is sine agus dá bhean céile nua aigesean, agus chun cócaire tí a fháil. Is ar chúrsaí dáileacháin na pátrúnachta atá na húdair imní ‘poiblí’ dírithe, den chuid is mó.
Ba í Anne Hume, French roimh phósadh di, (rugadh 1701) an duine a raibh sé de chúram uirthi ábhar íogair den sórt sin a theachtadh. Bhí an ban-oighre seo, ar dhuine de na cairde ba shine agus ba dhlúithe a bhí ag an mbanmharcas, tar éis Thomas Hume, cara le hathair an bhanmharcais, a phósadh. Leis an rogha Anne a cheapadh mar theachtaire don Mharcas le linn sheachtainí tosaigh na hAthghairme, léirítear tábhacht na mban i ngníomhaíochtaí polaitiúla an mharcais an tráth úd. Níor bhain ach ceann amháin de na treoracha díreach le hAnne í féin: D’iarr Elizabeth uirthi litir a chur chuig Katherine Ranelagh mura mbeadh sí in ann í a sheachadadh í féin. Iarradh ar an marcas ómós a thabhairt go pearsanta don Bhantiarna Ranelagh freisin.
Sa chéad treoir rúnda, tugtar treoir dó a bheith coimeádach ó thaobh oifigí agus poist a dheonú go dtí go raibh sé in ann dintiúir na n-achainíoch a sheiceáil i gcomhairle le hElizabeth. Ní raibh aon amhras ach go raibh an banmharcas in ann na fir Éireannacha sin ar cheart a ndílseacht a chúiteamh leo a shainaithint, i bhfianaise go raibh cónaí uirthi in Éirinn le linn dheoraíocht fhada a fir chéile. Sa mheamram, molann sí liosta fada fear do sheirbhís a fir chéile.
Treoraíonn an banmharcas dá fear céile conas déileáil leis na hiarrataí pátrúnachta a bhí faighte aige, fiú, ag tabhairt le tuiscint gur chóir dó gach uile iarratas a chur san áireamh, ach gan aon ghealltanas a thabhairt ina leith: luann sí go ndéanann sí an rud céanna í féin. Iarrtar ar Anne leithscéal a ghabháil leis an marcas as an líon moltaí a bhí curtha chuige ag Elizabeth. Ansin, tugtar rabhadh go gcuirfear Elizabeth in iúl dó aon mholtaí a thabharfaí faoi éigeantas má chuireann sí a hainm leo agus an ‘e’ deireadh sa bhfocal ‘Ormonde’, an Béarla ar Urumhain, fágtha ar lár aici óna hainm. Is léir gur aithin sí tábhacht na rúnscríofa go leanúnach. Ach chomh maith leis sin, léiríonn sé cé chomh dlúth agus ar mhothaigh sí amhail is go raibh sí nasctha leis an ‘e’ deireanach sin sa bhfocal ‘Ormonde’, agus sin an fáth a bhfuil sé oiriúnaithe againn don taispeántas seo.